2016-03-16编辑: 南絮 人参与来自: 环球教育

  In the modern world, it is no longer necessary to use animals forfood or use animal products, for instance, clothing and medicines. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

  Write at least 250 words.

  Write at least 250 words.


  该题是12年4月18日的原题,但不幸的是,国内很多同行写来写去都那几点,包括大路观点“残忍血腥野蛮不人道”都还是刻板生硬使用千篇一律的表达。这个题目的范围其实很宽,因为在学界关于“是否应该以动物为食”、“是否应该用动物皮毛做衣物”、以及“是否应该用动物做实验”是三个大话题,且讨论已经不计其数。但尽管有着不计其数的讨论,但各位摸摸胸口问问自己,是否亲自动手搜索过一篇类似文章或类似观点?又或者是否在其他话题下做过相关搜索呢?累计第一手材料永远比道听途说来得准确,这也是我一再强调的观点。在这边文章中我采用了“部分同意、部分否认”的写法,并围绕题目中的food, clothing和medicines三个方面展开。




  Introduction (背景句 + 转述题目 + 个人观点)

  Animals, from the fruit fly (果蝇) to the mouse, and to other species, are widely used in every corner of the world. Some argue that today there is no need to use animals for food, clothing, or medicine because of the mature(adj. 成熟的) and sophisticated (adj. 精密的;复杂的) technological innovation and revolution (科技创新与革命). For me, I partially share this opinion (部分同意这个观点) while considering that animals are crucial for allowing scientists to learn more about human biology (人体生物学) and health and for developing new medicines.

  Body paragraph 1 (不同意以动物为食原因)

  Eating animals would be considered unacceptable for two main reasons. Firstly, for those who accept that animals have rights, raising and killing animals for food is morally wrong; eating animals means a clear violation of their fundamental right to life (对他们基本生命权利的侵害). Secondly, according to a report, a staggering (adj. 令人惊愕的) 51 percent or more ofglobal greenhouse gas emissions (温室气体排放) are caused by animal agriculture (畜牧业). For example, a typical pig factory generates the same amount of raw waste on a daily basis as a city of 12,000 people. Additionally, raising animals for food is the number-one source of water pollution. Therefore, eating less meat will help to prevent climate disaster, while also being ethically (adv. 从伦理上) right to some extent.

  Body paragraph 2 (不同意用动物皮毛做衣物原因)

  There is nothing “natural” about clothing made from animals’ skin, fur, or leather. In addition to contributing to the suffering and deaths of millions of animals each year, the production of wool, fur, and leather contributes to climate change, land devastation (土地破坏), pollution, and water contamination (水污染). For instance, the leather industry is environmentally hazardous (对环境有害的), as the toxic groundwater (有毒的地下水) neartanneries (n. 制革厂) and production facilities has caused health problems for residents in surrounding areas. Furthermore, these days there is an endless supply of clothing which is not made from animals. It is easy to buy products such as shoes, jackets, jumpers (针织套衫), and scarves (围巾) made from synthetic materials (合成材料) or natural plant fibres (天然植物纤维) such as cotton, hemp (n. 麻) or linen (n. 亚麻).

  Body paragraph 3 (同意应该用动物做实验原因)

  Some think modern technologies have moved beyond the need to performinhumane (adj. 残忍的;无人情味的) and cruel tests products on animals –test tube (试管) tests on cell lines (细胞系) or latter stage human testing should be sufficient to ensure safety; however, there are still many areas where animal testing is necessary and non-animal testing is not yet a scientifically valid (adj. 有效的) and available option. For drugs and biologics(n. 生物制剂), the focus of animal testing is on the drug’s nature, chemistry, and effects (pharmacology (n. 药理学)) and on its potential damage to the body (toxicology (n. 毒理学)). Animal testing is used to measure, first, how much of a drug is absorbed into the blood and second, how a medical product is broken down chemically in the body. Also, the research into possible treatments involves very potentially dangerous substances (潜在危险物质) with unknown side effects (副作用), and some of the research requires the manipulation of genes (基因操纵). It would be unethical to expose human test subjects to the potential risks involved in this type of testing without first ensuring that the treatment was proved safe in animal test subjects.

  Conclusion (总结全文观点 + 强化自身观点)

  To conclude, I agree that eating and wearing animals are devastating (vt. 破坏) the planetary environment (星球环境) and exerts a negative influence on human health, while also being ethically wrong in the eyes of some people. However, there is a fact that without animal testing we would not have the cures we do have for diseases such as diabetes (n. 糖尿病) or asthma (n. 哮喘). Additionally, it would be not possible to have developed vaccines (n. 疫苗) to prevent illnesses like polio (n. 小儿麻痹症), and we would not have learned how to make transplants work (移植作业) or install pacemakers (n.心脏起搏器).

  (563 words)